kubernetes service

kubernetes service

Posted by XuXinkun on March 27, 2016

service type

k8s中service主要有三种:

  • ClusterIP: use a cluster-internal IP only - this is the default and is discussed above. Choosing this value means that you want this service to be reachable only from inside of the cluster.
  • NodePort: on top of having a cluster-internal IP, expose the service on a port on each node of the cluster (the same port on each node). You’ll be able to contact the service on any :NodePort address.
  • LoadBalancer: on top of having a cluster-internal IP and exposing service on a NodePort also, ask the cloud provider for a load balancer which forwards to the Service exposed as a :NodePort for each Node.

clusterIP

clusterIP主要作用是方便pod到pod之间的调用。

[minion@te-yuab6awchg-0-z5nlezoa435h-kube-master-udhqnaxpu5op ~]$ kubectl describe service redis-sentinel 
Name:			redis-sentinel
Namespace:		default
Labels:			name=sentinel,role=service
Selector:		redis-sentinel=true
Type:			ClusterIP
IP:			10.254.142.111
Port:			<unnamed>	26379/TCP
Endpoints:		<none>
Session Affinity:	None
No events.

clusterIP主要在每个node节点使用iptables,将发向clusterIP对应端口的数据,转发到kube-proxy中。

[minion@te-yuab6awchg-0-z5nlezoa435h-kube-master-udhqnaxpu5op ~]$ sudo iptables -S -t nat
...
-A KUBE-PORTALS-CONTAINER -d 10.254.142.111/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/redis-sentinel:" -m tcp --dport 26379 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 36547
-A KUBE-PORTALS-HOST -d 10.254.142.111/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/redis-sentinel:" -m tcp --dport 26379 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.5:36547

然后kube-proxy自己内部实现有负载均衡的方法,并可以查询到这个service下对应pod的地址和端口,进而把数据转发给对应的pod的地址和端口。

nodePort/LoadBalancer

nodePort跟LoadBalancer其实是同一种方式。参见这里的说明

区别在于LoadBalancer比nodePort多了一步,就是可以调用cloud provider去创建LB来向节点导流。cloud provider好像支持了openstack、gce等系统。

nodePort的原理在于在node上开了一个端口,将向该端口的流量导入到kube-proxy,然后由kube-proxy进一步导给对应的pod。

所以service采用nodePort的方式,正确的方法是在前面有一个lb,然后lb的后端挂上所有node的对应端口。这样即使node1挂了。lb也可以把流量导给其他node的对应端口。

我们使用这样的一个manifest来创建service

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    name: ssh
    role: service
  name: ssh-service1
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 2222
      targetPort: 22
      nodePort: 30239
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    ssh-service: "true"

使用get service可以看到虽然type是NodePort,但是依然为其分配了一个clusterIP。分配clusterIP的作用还是如上文所说,是方便pod到service的数据访问。

[minion@te-yuab6awchg-0-z5nlezoa435h-kube-master-udhqnaxpu5op ~]$ kubectl get service
NAME             LABELS                                    SELECTOR              IP(S)            PORT(S)
kubernetes       component=apiserver,provider=kubernetes   <none>                10.254.0.1       443/TCP
ssh-service1     name=ssh,role=service                     ssh-service=true      10.254.132.107   2222/TCP

使用describe可以查看到详细信息。可以看到暴露出来的NodePort端口,正是指定的30239

[minion@te-yuab6awchg-0-z5nlezoa435h-kube-master-udhqnaxpu5op ~]$ kubectl describe service ssh-service1 
Name:			ssh-service1
Namespace:		default
Labels:			name=ssh,role=service
Selector:		ssh-service=true
Type:			LoadBalancer
IP:			10.254.132.107
Port:			<unnamed>	2222/TCP
NodePort:		<unnamed>	30239/TCP
Endpoints:		<none>
Session Affinity:	None
No events.

nodePort的工作原理与clusterIP大致相同,是发送到node上指定端口的数据,通过iptables重定向到kube-proxy对应的端口上。然后由kube-proxy进一步把数据发送到其中的一个pod上。

[minion@te-yuab6awchg-0-z5nlezoa435h-kube-master-udhqnaxpu5op ~]$ sudo iptables -S -t nat
...
-A KUBE-NODEPORT-CONTAINER -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/ssh-service1:" -m tcp --dport 30239 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 36463
-A KUBE-NODEPORT-HOST -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/ssh-service1:" -m tcp --dport 30239 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.5:36463
-A KUBE-PORTALS-CONTAINER -d 10.254.0.1/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/kubernetes:" -m tcp --dport 443 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 53940
-A KUBE-PORTALS-CONTAINER -d 10.254.132.107/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/ssh-service1:" -m tcp --dport 2222 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 36463
-A KUBE-PORTALS-HOST -d 10.254.0.1/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/kubernetes:" -m tcp --dport 443 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.5:53940
-A KUBE-PORTALS-HOST -d 10.254.132.107/32 -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/ssh-service1:" -m tcp --dport 2222 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.5:36463